I’ve had a little back and forth with some other value investors recently on my concerns about some of DreamWorks Animation’s outstanding corporate governance and capital allocation issues. I figured it was probably time to put pen to paper and formally record some of these thoughts.
To start, I want to mention the capital allocation issues. Over the last four years (2008-2011), DWA generated approximately $508M in operating cash flow, or about $127M/yr. In that same period, DWA invested $217M in their business, or about $54M/yr, while it bought back $389M, or about $97M/yr, worth of stock and finally they retired $73M worth of debt, which occurred in one year (2009) and represented the last of their LT debt on the books at that time.
As you can quickly surmise, there was only $291M of FCF or about $73M/yr over that period to support $462M in buybacks and debt paydown, a deficit of $171M which appears to have been financed by drawing down cash on the balance sheet and potentially leaning on the revolving credit facility as well.
I see a couple problems here:
- This is a growth company but the company will not be able to finance its growth ambitions on its own now because it has used a ton of its own financial resources buying back stock, which means it’ll have to either issue substantial new equity at low prices or take on more debt to finance its future growth
- The buybacks occurred at a range of prices and therefore market valuations of the company, with many of them clustered at the high end of that range, implying the company is not good at determining its own value and buying back only when the company is on sale
The first issue concerns me especially so given the nature of DreamWorks Animation’s business– in the end, it is highly speculative and could easily fail, meaning the most appropriate financing type is equity, not debt. Debt is more appropriate for a low-risk, predictable, consistent enterprise (such as financing a real estate venture). Equity provides the kind of flexibility and endurance one needs to weather the potential storms in a business like DWA’s.
But by using up much of its cash, DWA has put itself in the position where it will have to either dilute existing shareholders at potentially disadvantageous prices, or else it’ll have to raise debt which I believe adds substantial extra risk because of the way it mismatches with their business fundamentals.
The second issue concerns me because I think it directly explains a lot of the apparent value destruction that has occurred at DWA over the last 4 years as communicated by the fluctuating market capitalization and I think it sets a precedent that is in the long-run bad for minority shareholders, not good, as people of the “buybacks are good no matter what” school of thought seem to believe.
In 2008, the peak price of DWA was $32/share and with 91M FDSO at the time, that amounted to a market cap of $2.9B. In early 2010, the company climbed to an all-time peak price of nearly $43.50/share and with 87M FDSO that amounted to a market cap of nearly $3.8B. The shares now linger back below their 2009 low of $18.56/share and very close to the all-time low of $16.52/share reached in January of 2012, trading around $17/share for a total market cap of about $1.43B.
Slice it how you like it but according to the market the company has conservatively destroyed almost $1.5B of value in that time and I’d say that’s primarily due to spending $460M on buybacks and debt reduction that could’ve been spent on growing the business or waiting for opportunities to grow the business. If you add that capital back into the business you’d get a market cap closer to $2B right now.
Most of the buybacks occurred near the $30/share range with relatively little of the buybacks occurring near the lows of around $17/share. This kind of capital allocation “discipline” can not be put to bed by arguing that “share buybacks are good if they happen at all”– the latter price represents a 50% discount to the former (or the former a nearly 100% premium to the latter, depending on how you want to look at it)! Are we supposed to be comforted by the fact that DWA’s management and board seem to think the company is cheap anywhere between $3B and $1.5B in market cap?
That isn’t a reasonable way to manage capital. You’ll never catch Warren Buffett making that kind of argument and I highly doubt you’d have much money to manage on your own if you adhered to that philosophy for long.
One of the replies I got back from another investor (see below) on this was that “what’s done is done.” That is an unacceptable response. What’s done is not done because it could very easily happen again and it is more than likely to do so given that the pattern set, the discipline demonstrated so far, is that the management and board of DWA is incompetent when it comes to allocating capital to share buybacks. This is a red flag and a way they could continue to destroy whatever value they create through their growth strategy in the future.
Golden parachutes for the pilot and the flight crew, but not the passengers
At the behest of another money manager with a value-based approach I had been communicating with, I decided to review the Form DEF-14A filed 4/11/12 for DWA. I had (admittedly) skim-read the thing when first performing due diligence several months ago, but I had not read it line-by-line as he had urged me to do, more on that fact in a bit.
As I read through it, I noticed a few things.
For one, I noticed that FRMO-owned companies own 9,614,089 shares or 13.1% outstanding, ostensibly for their ETF products. I am impressed with the strategic thinking of this organization and for the purposes of their own business they seem to be great capital allocators (of course, I have no idea at what prices they accumulated their position). But then it dawned on me that most of their products are passively-managed index ETFs and that took the wind out of my sails. I’m not necessarily under the impression at this point that they hold a stake because they think it’s a great buy, but just because it fits some strategy or theme for one of their proprietary indexes. So, that’s about 13% of the company potentially owned by “dumb money” in this case.
Then I noticed that the company utilizes Exequity and Frederic W. Cook & Co., compensation consultants, to determine executive pay. I’m working on a “digest” post of articles I’ve been reading about corporate governance and activism over at a now-defunct website nominally belonging to Carl Icahn (man, that guy seems a bit ADD at times the way he starts and stops investments, grass roots activism platforms, etc.) and I came across this post on compensation consultants which really set off alarm bells for me.
Think about it for a second– the managers are using company money, which belongs to shareholders, to hire consultants (multiples in this case) who charge millions of dollars and spend hundreds of hours trying to outdo each other in justifying outlandish executive compensation packages. In other words, they use your money to figure out how much they should pay themselves at your expense. It’s kind of like gilt-edged unionism for corporate executives. Why the hell is this such a mystery? Why do you need consultants to figure stuff like this out for you?
This is a corporate governance red flag– this is not treating minority shareholders like equal partners but rather treating them like the sucker at the table. After all, Katzenberg owns about 15% of the company and because of the dual class share structure (another red flag, by the way), effectively controls the company himself which makes him an owner-operator (to be fair, a good thing)… you think he can’t figure out how much to pay his other executives in terms of what’s good for K-man and what’s not?
Then I get to the actual executive compensation itself. Katzenberg is now paid a $1 annual salary, choosing to receive most of his compensation via stock options and other perks. Other executives are compensated quite generously and compensation has been growing. The value of options grants is $17M annually, or over 1% of market cap each year. Long-term incentive compensation is worth another $9.2M. Combined, that is $26M or almost 2% of the company’s market cap for a handful of top execs and board members.
Other things of note:
- Lew Coleman, president and CFO, recently exchanged higher annual cash salary structure in return for decreased long-term incentive awards, does this show lack of faith in the long-term value of the company?
- Ann Daly, the COO, has part of her compensation tied to performance of the company’s stock price, which is an idiotic practice given that it incentivizes her to manipulate the company’s operations to game short-term numbers meanwhile the company’s management has no direct control, in the long-run, over what the investing public thinks of the value of the company (yes, their actions will translate into better or worse valuations but in the end it’s like tying someone’s compensation to the weather)
- Overall, tons of golden parachutes for just about everyone in the case of a change of control or a termination with or without cause, which are more blatant red flags and give minority shareholders an unfair shake
Then there’s the income tax savings-sharing agreement with Paul Allen, a former shareholder and financial enabler of the company which the proxy explains constitutes “substantial” payments to Mr. Allen over time (this fact being confirmed by the multi-hundred million dollar payable on the balance sheet). To put it simply, I don’t get this or how it works and so far no one has been able to explain it to me. It could be harmless, it could be disastrously unfair to minority shareholder. I really have no clue, it’s beyond my accounting and income tax liability knowledge.
My overall impressions were thus: it takes 66 pages to explain/justify DWA’s compensation practices and related-party special transactions. The company hires compensation and other consultants with shareholder money to determine what management should be paid. And shares are locked up and all change of control decisions will be made by Katzenberg. This company gets maybe a C in terms of corporate governance, which is average in relative terms but sucks in my absolute opinion.
In general, I am concerned about my own ability to understand the accounting behind the company’s compensation practices. And this dovetails with my lingering concern that neither I nor anyone else seems to be able to confidently and accurately model just how much cash specific or even any single movie title in DWA’s library generates for the company at different points over its life.
Bringing it full circle
A few days ago I posted a video interview of Rahul Saraogi, a value investor operating in India, along with my notes of the interview. I found the interview surprisingly impactful (I’ve been watching other interviews from the Manual of Ideas folks and unfortunately none of them have come anywhere close in terms of profundity) and the item that stuck out the most from the whole thing was Saraogi’s comments on the importance of corporate governance and capital allocation for the long-term investment results of minority shareholders.
To reiterate, according to Saraogi good corporate governance means dominant shareholders who treat the minority shareholders like equal partners, who do not treat the company like a personal piggy bank or a tool for furthering their own personal agendas at others’ expense. He says good corporate governance is binary– it either exists or it doesn’t, there are no shades of grey here. The issues I’ve cited above make it clear that DWA does not have good corporate governance practices. The fact that the Form 14A discloses the fact that both David Geffen and Jeffery Katzenberg are essentially using the company resources to the tune of over $2M per year to subsidize their ownership and maintenance of private aircraft is another good example– it is one thing to have the company reimburse them for expenses occurred in doing business but it is quite obvious from the way this agreement is structured that the company is basically paying for the major costs of ownership while they are deriving the personal benefits and exercising discretion as owners in name and title.
Similarly, capital allocation is critical in Saraogi’s mind and many companies and their management don’t get it– they either don’t understand it’s importance or how to do it, or they don’t care because they’re rich enough. I think a little bit of both is operating here. Certainly Jeffery Katzenberg is “rich enough” at this point. He’s worth several hundred million dollars at least, he has the company paying for his private aircraft and other perks and he has even said in interviews I’ve read that he’s got all the money he could need or want at this point and continues to work out of passion and interest. Normally that’s a good thing but in this respect it’s a bad thing because a person who operates as an artist rather than a businessman probably doesn’t care what their ROC looks like as long as they get to put their name on the castles they build.
And people who get capital allocation don’t pay prices that range nearly 100% in value for shares they purchase, unless of course they’re absolutely convinced the intrinsic value still far exceeds such prices. I note here that while there is no evidence from the company that this isn’t the case, there’s similarly no evidence that there is, and I don’t think faith is a good basis on which to form a valuation. As an aside, none of the grade-A elite Wall St analysts on the earnings calls ever ask about this, and my e-mail to DWA’s IR on this topic and numerous others went completely unanswered, which is another embarrassing black mark for the company in terms of corporate governance.
Other voices in the wild
For those who are interested, there are now two recent write-ups on DWA over at Whopper Investments, the first on the value case for DWA and the second analyzing the company’s potential takeover value when compared to Disney’s acquisition of Pixar in 2004.
I really enjoy Whopper’s blog for the most part but I consider these two posts to be some of his weaker analytical contributions to date (which should be obvious from my remarks in the comments section of each, 1 and 2) and if anything that makes me even more queasy with this one– he mimicked a lot of my own unimpressive reasons for investing and I don’t generally find the sound of my own voice that soothing in cases like these, and he seemed unable to answer some of my deeper concerns, which could be evidence of his own shortcomings as an analyst or it could be evidence that these are questions with unsatisfactory answers by and large (I prefer to believe the latter at this point).
In a nutshell, at this point my major concern is that, even if the company successfully executes on its grand growth strategy it might not mean as much for minority shareholders as we might like due to outstanding corporate governance and capital allocation concerns. I seriously wonder if I and many other value investors like me are not blinding themselves to these “binary” concerns because the potential home-run hit possibility of getting in near all-time lows on “the next Disney” is just too exciting to resist.
Whatever I do, I’ve now written this post and put it in the public domain so I won’t be able to excuse myself later on by claiming I hadn’t thought about these issues.